Cell-mediated immune responses of murine and human neonates are generally thought to be biased toward a Th2 response (). Several studies have documented that newborn foals are deficient in their ability to induce IFN-γ in response to stimulation with mitogens (, ). These findings, along with the peculiar susceptibility of foals to infection with R. equi, a facultative intracellular pathogen known to cause disease in immunocompetent mice only when a Th2 response is experimentally induced (), have led to the hypothesis that T-cell responses from newborn foals may be biased toward a Th2 cytokine profile. However, experimental infection of neonatal foals with virulent R. equi triggers induction of IFN-γ mRNA transcription in a manner that is similar to that in adult horses, indicating that foals can mount adequate IFN-γ responses if they are provided the proper stimulus (, ). Thorough assessment of the Th1/Th2 polarization of the foals' immune responses also necessitates measurement of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-4. Recent data demonstrate that foals are also deficient in their ability to produce IL-4 in response to stimulations with mitogens, suggesting that a clear-cut polarization toward a Th2 response is unlikely in neonatal foals (, ). The relative Th1/Th2 polarization of equine neonatal immune responses would be better assessed by measuring antigen-specific responses after vaccination rather than after stimulation with mitogens. To the authors' knowledge, the present study is the first to measure Th1 and Th2 cytokines in response to vaccination of newborn foals with a killed adjuvanted vaccine. Consistent with studies using mitogens, baseline (prior to vaccination) IFN-γ and IL-4 concentrations in the present study were significantly lower in 3-day-old foals than in adult horses. However, the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio after vaccination was significantly higher in both groups of foals than in adult horses. These results indicate that although basal cytokine secretion in neonatal foals may be considerably dampened, there is not a clear bias toward a Th2 response to the vaccine used in the present study.
VITA FLEX FOAL RESPONSE 30 ML – Hunt Country Saddlery
I didn't give the whole thing at once because I'd rather she fill her tummy up with colostrum rather than me fill it up with foal response. It did seem to perk her up though.
Foal Response - Chariton Vet Supply
Cortisol is the primary corticosteroid secreted in a diurnal pattern from the adrenal cortex of healthy, nonstressed horses and foals (,). Secretion of cortisol is under the control of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland via corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), respectively. The central nervous system senses signals from the body, such as tissue injury, pain, hypotension, hypoxemia, and cytokine release, which are relayed to and integrated by the hypothalamus (). In turn, release of CRH is increased or decreased based on the information received by the hypothalamus. Both CRH and ACTH are subject to negative feedback control by increased concentrations of circulating cortisol. During illness, increases in serum cortisol concentration are believed to be a vital component of the physiologic stress response (). The effects of cortisol are numerous and necessary for normal function and homeostasis in the body. Cortisol is essential for provision of nutrients to tissues via carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism; regulation of immune function; synthesis and action of catecholamines and adrenergic receptors; cardiac contractility; vascular tone and maintenance of blood pressure; wound healing; endothelial integrity; and various other functions (,). Factors, such as prolonged transport, colic, laminitis, anesthesia, and surgery, have been associated with increased serum cortisol concentrations in horses (–). As well, in times of stress, severe infection, trauma, or illness, secretion of cortisol can increase as much as 6-fold in humans and is roughly proportional to the severity of illness (–). Diurnal variation in cortisol secretion is lost during these instances as a result of increased production of CRH and ACTH and a reduction in negative feedback from cortisol (,).
Foal Response PASTE - 1.05oz tube